(i) Turning forces concept; a moment of a force; forces in equilibrium; center of gravity.
(ii) Uniform circular motion.
(iii) Work, energy, power, and their relation with force.
(iv) Different types of energy (e.g. chemical energy, Mechanical energy, heat energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, sound energy, light energy).
(v) Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio, and efficiency; pulley systems showing the utility of each type of machine.
(vi) Principle of Conservation of energy.
(i) Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular prism – qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent depth of objects in water and apparent bending of sticks in water. Applications of refraction of light.
(ii) Total internal reflection: Critical angle; examples in triangular glass prisms; comparison with reflection from a plane mirror (qualitative only). Applications of total internal reflection.
(iii) Lenses (converging and diverging) including characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only); magnifying glass; location of images using ray diagrams and thereby determining magnification.
(iv) Using a triangular prism to produce a visible spectrum from white light; Electromagnetic spectrum.
(i) Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use; simple numerical problems on echoes.
(ii) Natural vibrations, Damped vibrations, Forced vibrations, and Resonance – a special case of forced vibrations.
(iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound.
4. Electricity and Magnetism
(i) Ohm’s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance.
(ii) Electrical power and energy.
(iii) Household circuits – main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; color coding of wires.
(i) Calorimetry: meaning, specific heat capacity; the principle of the method of mixtures; Numerical Problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures.
(ii) Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving a change of state for fusion only.
6. Modern Physics
Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background radiation and safety precautions.
ICSE Class 10 Chemistry
1. Periodic Properties and variations of Properties – Physical and Chemical
(i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods. Definitions of the following periodic properties and trends in these properties in groups and periods should be studied:
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.
The study of modern periodic table up to period 3 (students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 3 – Argon);
Periodicity and other related properties to be explained on the basis of nuclear charge and shells (not orbitals).
2. Chemical Bonding
Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds – orbit structure and electron dot structure.
(a) Electrovalent Bonding:
Electron dot structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO.
Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), dissociation in solution and in a molten state to be linked with electrolysis.
(b) Covalent Bonding:
Electron dot structure of covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example: hydrogen, chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.
Polar Covalent compounds – based on the difference in electronegativity: Examples – HCl and H2O including structures.
Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution.
Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds.
(c) Coordinate Bonding:
The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH– ions in water and NH4+ ion.
The meaning of lone pair; the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with help of electron dot diagrams.
3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
(i) Simple definitions in terms of the molecules and their characteristic properties.
(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
Examples with the equation for the ionisation/dissociation of ions of acids, bases and salts.
Acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue.
Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal. (To be explained with suitable examples).
Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or universal indicator.
(iii) Definition of salt; types of salts.
Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.
4. Analytical Chemistry
(i) Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide on the solution of salts: the colour of salt and its solution; formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
On the solution of salts:
Colour of salt and its solution.
Action on the addition of Sodium Hydroxide to the solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
Action on the addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to the solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
(ii) Action of alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on certain metals, their oxides and hydroxides.
The metals must include aluminium, zinc and lead, their oxides and hydroxides, which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH, KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of these substances.
5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
(i) Vapour Density and its relation to relative molecular mass:
Molecular mass = 2×vapour density (formal proof not required)
Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from:
(a) the percentage composition of a compound.
(b) the masses of combining elements.
(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Definitions and examples.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
Substances containing molecules only ions only, both molecules and ions.
Examples; relating their composition with their behaviour as strong and weak electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.
(iii) Definition and explanation of electrolysis, electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion, cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
(iv) An elementary study of the migration of ions, with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions (reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals, e.g. Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis of:
Molten lead bromide
acidified water with platinum electrodes
Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with copper electrodes; electron transfer at the electrodes.
The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used, electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective discharge theory, wherever applicable.
(v) Applications of electrolysis:
Electroplating with nickel and silver, choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
Electrorefining of copper;
Reasons and conditions for electroplating; names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating, refining of copper.
(i) Occurrence of metals in nature:
Mineral and ore – Meaning only.
Common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc.
(ii) Extraction of Aluminium.
(a) Chemical method for purifying bauxite by using NaOH – Baeyer’s Process.
(b) Electrolytic extraction – Hall Heroult’s process:
Structure of electrolytic cell – the various components as part of the electrolyte, electrodes and electrode reactions.
Description of the changes occurring, the purpose of the substances used and the main reactions with their equations.
8. Study of Compounds
A. Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); reaction with ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants, product, condition, equation, diagram or setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, precaution, collection of the gas and identification.
A simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than air.
The solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, inference.
Method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water- the special arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt.
Reaction with ammonia
Acidic properties of its solution – reaction with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides; decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, sulphides, sulphites.
Precipitation reactions with silver nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.
Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber’s Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen; uses of ammonia.
Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; (the preparation to be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification)
Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN using warm water. Ammonia from ammonium salts using alkalies.
The reactions to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions and equations.
Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment).
The burning of ammonia in oxygen.
The catalytic oxidation of ammonia (with conditions and reaction)
Its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and chlorine (both chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess).
All these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations and observations.
An aqueous solution of ammonia – reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.
Uses of ammonia – manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – and its suitable alternatives which are non-ozone depleting), and cleansing agents.
C. Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. Large scale preparation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent.
Laboratory preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the laboratory method to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations, setting up of apparatus, diagram, precautions, collection and identification.
Manufacture of Nitric acid by Ostwald’s process (Only equations with conditions where applicable).
As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper, carbon, sulphur.
D. Sulphuric Acid
Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when concentrated – oxidation of carbon and sulphur; as a dehydrating agent – dehydration of sugar and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature.
Manufacture by Contact Process Equations with conditions where applicable).
Its behaviour as an acid when dilute – reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal sulphide.
Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent – the oxidation of carbon and sulphur.
Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid – reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
9. Organic Chemistry
(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency, catenation.
Formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight-chain, branched-chain, cyclic compounds (only benzene).
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds.
Structural formulae of hydrocarbons. The structural formula must be given for: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes up to 5 carbon atoms.
Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
(iii) Homologous series – characteristics with examples.
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula.
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
Simple nomenclature – of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with only one functional group)
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
Alkanes – general formula; methane (greenhouse gas) and ethane – methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium propionate), from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Complete combustion of methane and ethane, the reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.
Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydrohalogenation reaction and dehydration reactions.
Alkynes -(unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne; Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide).
Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes and alkynes.
Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne
The ICSE syllabus for Class 10 Biology includes:
1. Basic Biology
(i) Cell Cycle and Cell Division:
Cell Cycle – Interphase (G1, S, G2) and Mitotic Phase
Cell Division: Mitosis and its stages.
A basic understanding of Meiosis is a reduction division (stages not required).
A brief idea of homologous chromosomes and crossing over leading to variations.
Significance and major differences between mitotic and meiotic division.
(ii) Structure of chromosome:
The basic structure of chromosome with an elementary understanding of terms such as chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA and centromere.
2. Plant Physiology
(i) Absorption by roots, imbibition, diffusion and osmosis; osmotic pressure, root pressure; turgidity and flaccidity; plasmolysis and deplasmolysis; the absorption of water and minerals; active and passive transport (in brief); The rise of water up to the xylem; Forces responsible for ascent of sap.
(ii) Transpiration – process and significance. Ganong’s photometer and its limitations. The factors affecting the rate of transpiration. Experiments on transpiration. A brief idea of guttation and bleeding.
(iii) Photosynthesis: the process and its importance to life in general; experiments to show the necessity of light, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, the formation of starch and release of oxygen; carbon cycle.
3. Human Anatomy and Physiology
(i) Circulatory System: Blood and lymph, the structure and working of the heart, blood vessels, circulation of blood (only names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, liver and kidney will be required). Lymphatic system.
(ii) Excretory System: A brief introduction to the excretory organs; parts of the urinary system; structure and function of the kidneys; blood vessels associated with kidneys; structure and function of the nephron
(iii) Nervous system: Structure of Neuron; central, autonomous and peripheral nervous system (in brief); brain and spinal cord; reflex action and how it differs from voluntary action.
Sense organs – Eye: Structure, functions, defects and corrective measures: Ear: Parts and functions of the ear.
(iv) Endocrine System: General study of the following glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary. Endocrine and Exocrine glands.